The ONE organ responsible for high blood pressure.
High Blood Pressure and African Americans
The prevalence of high blood pressure differs by race/ethnicity, with the condition being more common among blacks (40.4%) compared with whites (27.4%) and Mexican-Americans (26.1%).
East/Southeast Asian adults had the greatest odds of hypertension, nearly 3 times that of white adults (AOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.6–4.9). A significant interaction (P = . 002) between race and BMI indicated a potential differential effect of BMI on hypertension across racial/ethnic groups.
- Heart disease
- Blood vessel disease
- Kidney disease
What is high blood pressure?Blood pressure is the push of blood against the walls of your arteries. Blood pressure depends on two things: how hard your heart pumps the blood and the amount of resistance in your arteries to blood flow. Blood pressure is recorded as two numbers. The systolic pressure is the top number. This is the pressure against artery walls as the heart beats. The bottom number is the diastolic pressure. This is the pressure against artery walls as the heart relaxes between beats. Both numbers are important to tell if your blood pressure is too high. Experts don't know why most people get high blood pressure. Certain risk factors, however, make it more likely. Some factors can’t be changed, but others can. These are the risk factors for high blood pressure:
- Age. The risk for high blood pressure increases with age.
- Male gender. Men have a higher risk of developing high blood pressure earlier in life.
- Family history. This means that you have blood relatives who have high blood pressure.
- Being overweight or obese.
- Alcohol. The risk goes up for anyone drinking more than average: 2 drinks per day for men and 1 drink per day for women.
- Too little exercise. The recommended amount of exercise is an average of 30 to 40 minutes of moderately to high intensity activity 4 to 5 days a week.
- Sensitivity to sodium (salt). In some people, eating too much salt leads to high blood pressure.
- Type 2 diabetes, gout, or kidney disease.
- Pregnancy. Some women who do not have high blood pressure develop it during pregnancy.
- Certain medicines or herbal supplements. Taking certain medicines and herbal supplements can raise blood pressure in some people. Common ones include steroids, ibuprofen, and diet pills.
Why are the risks higher?It was once thought that certain genetic and biological differences caused the risk to be greater in African Americans. Experts are now looking into how socioeconomic disadvantages and lifestyle factors may add to these risks. African Americans are more likely to:
- Be sensitive to the effects of salt on blood pressure
- Have blood vessels that are more sensitive
- Be overweight or obese
- Have diabetes than non-Hispanic whites
- Less access to healthcare and healthcare information
- Lower levels of education and income
- Lack of resources for a healthy lifestyle
- Stressful lifestyle from things such as unemployment and living in neighborhoods with noise, violence, and poverty
- Diets high in salt, fat, and sugar, and low in vegetables and fiber
- Blood relatives who have had a stroke, heart attack, high blood pressure, or kidney disease
- Type 2 diabetes
- Overweight or obesity
Change your lifestyleIf you have high blood pressure, you can lower your blood pressure by making changes in your lifestyle. Your healthcare provider can help you find what changes you need to make and how to make them. These are the basics of a healthy lifestyle:
- Don't smoke or quit smoking.
- Keep yourself at a healthy weight, or a body mass index below 25.
- Get at least 30 to 40 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise most days.
- Buy low-salt or salt-free foods, and use little or no table salt.
- Eat 2 cups of fruit and 2.5 cups of different colored vegetables a day.
- Eat fewer foods from animals to avoid saturated fat.
- Use only nonfat or low-fat dairy products.
- Drink fewer sugary drinks.
- Limit how much alcohol you drink. This means no more than 2 drinks a day for men and 1 drink a day for women.