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Hypertension and Diabetes

The link between diabetes and hypertension

High blood pressure, or hypertension, often occurs alongside diabetes and obesity. Together, these conditions fall under the umbrella of metabolic syndrome. People with metabolic syndrome are at an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.

Hypertension and diabetes share a number of common causes and risk factors. A person who has one condition is at an increased risk for developing the other. Likewise, a person who has both conditions may find that each condition worsens the other. This article provides information on the link between high blood pressure and diabetes, including how to identify, prevent, and treat each condition.

Identifying hypertension and diabetes

Some relatively simple tests are available to help a person identify whether they have diabetes or hypertension.

Identifying hypertension

The American Heart Association (AHA)Trusted Source states that most people who have hypertension do not experience any symptoms. People usually discover that they have hypertension following a routine blood pressure check. A blood pressure reading will display numbers representing two different types of blood pressure: systolic and diastolic.
  • Systolic: This number appears at the top. It represents the maximum pressure the heart exerts when beating.
  • Diastolic: This number appears at the bottom. It represents the amount of pressure in the arteries between heartbeats.
The AHATrusted Source categorizes blood pressure readings according to the following parameters:
  • Normal: Systolic is below 120 and diastolic is below 80.
  • Elevated: Systolic is 120–129 and diastolic is below 80.
  • Hypertension stage 1: Systolic is 130–139 or diastolic is 80–89.
  • Hypertension stage 2: Systolic is 140 or higher, or diastolic is 90 or higher.
  • Hypertensive crisis: Systolic is higher than 180 or diastolic is above 120.
A hypertensive crisis is a medical emergency, and a person requires immediate medical attention to prevent severe complications.

Identifying diabetes

According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), not everyone with diabetes will experience symptoms of the disease. If symptoms of high blood glucose levels do appear, they may include:
  • excessive thirst
  • excessive hunger
  • frequent need to urinate
  • extreme fatigue
  • blurred vision
  • delayed wound healing
A person may also find that they become more susceptible to infections, such as:
  • urinary tract infections (UTIs)
  • thrush
  • upper respiratory tract infections
People can take a fasting glucose test to help identify diabetes. The ADA provides the following parameters for blood glucose levels following a fasting period of at least 8 hours:
  • Normal: This is less than 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl).
  • Prediabetes: This is between 100–125 mg/dl.
  • Diabetes: This is a reading of 126 mg/dl or above.
Other tests for diabetes can show blood glucose levels after drinking a sugary drink.
What is the link between diabetes and hypertension?
A 2021 articleTrusted Source notes that diabetes and hypertension often occur together and may share some common causes. These include:
  • sedentary lifestyle with excessive calorie intake
  • obesity
  • inflammation
  • oxidative stress
  • insulin resistance

Can diabetes cause hypertension?

A person with diabetes either does not have enoughTrusted Source insulin to process glucose or their insulin does not work effectively. Insulin is the hormone that enables the body to process glucose from food and use it as energy. When a person has insulin problems, glucose cannot enter their cells to provide energy, so it accumulates in the bloodstream instead. High blood glucose levels can cause widespread damage to tissues and organs, including those that play a key role in maintaining healthy blood pressure. For example, damage to the blood vessels and kidneys can cause blood pressure to rise.
Prawidlowe csisnienie
27 Healthy Habits
to Normalize Blood Pressure
Download now